(Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2009 191. 110 AD "Wheresoever the bishop shall appear, there let the people be, even as where Jesus may be, there is the universal katholike Church." 20 Examples uses of "Roman Catholic" by the Holy See: the encyclicals Divini Illius Magistri. Italy (1970 Portugal (1975 Brazil (1977 Spain (1981 Ireland (1996 Chile (2004) and Malta (2011 while the Philippines and the Vatican City have no procedure for divorce. After the war, freedom of religion was severely restricted in the Communist countries newly aligned with the Soviet Union, several of which had large Catholic populations. 282 Many scholars hold that a church structure of plural presbyters/bishops persisted in Rome until the mid-2nd century, when the structure of a single bishop and plural presbyters was adopted, 283 and that later writers retrospectively applied the term "bishop. The first nine-year war ended in 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg but continued tensions produced a far graver conflictthe Thirty Years' War which broke out in 1618. 270276 Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997.